writing_style    What are Writing styles?


Writing styles have been established to provide you with a way to give credit for work that you have used in writing your paper. It is important to cite sources not only to give credit where it’s due, but also to allow the reader of your work to locate the sources you have consulted. In short, the reader of your paper must be able to use the information you provide, both in the text and in appended list(s), to duplicate the research you have done.


A Writing style is a standard approach to the citation of sources that the author of a paper has consulted, abstracted, or quoted from. It prescribes methods for citing references within the text, providing a list of works cited at the end of the paper, and even formatting headings and margins.


Different academic disciplines use different Writing styles; your instructor may require you to use a particular style, or may allow you use one of your choosing. It is important to fully understand the Writing style to be used in your paper, and to apply it consistently. http://www.researchhaven.com/Style/index.htm

Academic writing styles


• APA: psychology, education, and other social sciences.
• MLA: literature, arts, and humanities.
• Turabian: designed for college students to use with all subjects.
• Chicago: used with all subjects in the “real world” by books, magazines, newspapers, and other non-scholarly publications.

What is APA?


General APA (American Psychological Association). When editors or teachers ask you to write in “APA style,” they do not mean writing style. They are referring to the editorial style that many of the social and behavioral sciences have adopted to present written material in the field.


Editorial style consists of rules or guidelines that a publisher observes to ensure clear and consistent presentation of written material. Editorial style concerns uniform use of such elements as


• punctuation and abbreviations
• construction of tables
• selection of headings
• citation of references
• presentation of statistics
• as well as many other elements that are a part of every manuscript


The American Psychological Association has established a style that it uses in all of the books and journals that it publishes. Many others working in the social and behavioral sciences have adopted this style as their standard as well.

What is MLA?


MLA (Modern Language Association) style recommended by the association for preparing scholarly manuscripts and student research papers concerns itself with the mechanics of writing, such as punctuation, quotation, and documentation of sources. MLA style has been widely adopted by schools, academic departments, and instructors for nearly half a century. (http://www.mla.org/style)


It is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (6th ed.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (2nd ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

What is Chicago/Turabian?


The Chicago Manual of Style documentation system is used in both the humanities and the social sciences. A bit more complex than either the MLA or the APA, it offers two approaches for documenting sources: 1) a notes system and, 2) an author/date system similar to the APA. This guide explains the Author/Date system. A separate guide explains the Chicago Manual of Style http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/home.html


Chicago style, sometimes referred to as Turabian, is used in many of the social sciences, including history and political science. This will introduce you to the three main citation features of Chicago: in-line citation, footnotes/endnotes, and content notes. Also, this handout will discuss the construction of a bibliography.


Examples of citations for various kinds of sources appear at the end of this handout (further examples are available on the Chicago Manual of Style). Note that this handout will focus on the note/bibliography system of citation, rather than the author-date system.


There are various ways of setting out references / bibliographies for an assignment. “Harvard Style” is a generic term for any referencing style which uses in-text references such as (Smith, 1999) and a reference list at the end of the document organized by author name and year of publication. There is no manual of the “Harvard Style” and there are many versions of it. In this guide, we are using a “Harvard Style” based on an Australian style manual (AGPS style) but now revised by Snooks & Co, 2002. The style is based on the author-date system for books, articles and “non-books”.

What is AMA?


The American Medical Association style (AMA style) conforms to the uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals (also referred to as the Vancouver group) for bibliographic references. The writing style is commonly used by medicine, health, and biological science students.